The amount of air can be measured by its volume or by its mass. Typically it is measured by volume, but for some applications it is necessary to measure it by mass, as air is a gas and therefore its volume can vary with temperature.
- cable is most often two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted, or braided together to form a single assembly, but can also refer to a heavy strong rope. In mechanics, cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling, and towing or conveying force through tension. Inelectrical engineering cables are used to carry electric currents. An optical cable contains one or more optical fibers in a protective jacket that supports the fibers.
Electric cables discussed here are mainly meant for installation in buildings and industrial sites. For power transmission at distances greater than a few kilometres see high-voltage cable, power cables, and HVDC.
Follow legal stipulations and at the same time save costs in deep-frying.
The oil in your deep-fryer has a direct influence on various factors: Old oil has a negative effect on the flavour and digestibility of deep-fried food. If you change the oil too early, you cause unnecessary costs. So what do you do?
Check the polar components (TPM –Total Polar Materials) in the oil regularly. Because these provide clear information on the quality of the oil, and are ideally between 14 and 22 percent. This allows you not only to use your cooking oil optimally, but also to adhere to legal limit values.
Distance (or farness) is a numerical description of how far apart objects are. In physics or everyday discussion, distance may refer to a physical length, or an estimation based on other criteria (e.g. "two counties over"). In mathematics, a distance function or metric is a generalization of the concept of physical distance. A metric is a function that behaves according to a specific set of rules, and is a concrete way of describing what it means for elements of some space to be "close to" or "far away from" each other. In most cases, "distance from A to B" is interchangeable with "distance between B and A".
The KKInstruments high voltage testing equipment range has been specially designed for the safe and practical detection of voltages on electrical systems in the power generation and distribution, rail network, petrochemical and electrical service and maintenance industries.
The high voltage test range is designed for use on power system voltages of up to 33kV, and includes ergonomically designed portable neon and digital voltage indicators, capacitive voltage indicators, circuit phasing equipment, insulator leakage detectors and current clamps.
This highly specialist range of HV test equipment is in widespread use with test engineers and electrical power technicians worldwide, and has a longstanding reputation for reliability, accuracy and robust construction.
Importantly, with safety such a crucial factor, all Seaward high voltage testing equipment is fully compliant with international standards and is manufactured in compliance with IEC 61243.
- Hipot is an abbreviationhigh potential. Traditionally, hipot is a term given to a class of electrical safety testing instruments used to verify electrical insulation in finished appliances, cables or other wired assemblies, printed circuit boards, electric motors, and transformers.
Under normal conditions, any electrical device will produce a minimal amount of leakage current due to the voltages and internal capacitance present within the product. Yet due to design flaws or other factors, the insulation in a product can break down, resulting in excessive leakage current flow. This failure condition can cause shock or death to anyone that comes into contact with the faulty product.
A hipot test (also called Dielectric Withstanding Voltage (DWV) test) verifies that the insulation of a product or component is sufficient to protect the operator from electrical shock. In a typical hipot test, high voltage is applied between a product's current-carrying conductors and its metallic shielding. The resulting current that flows through the insulation, known as leakage current, is monitored by the hipot tester. The theory behind the test is that if a deliberate over-application of test voltage does not cause the insulation to break down, the product will be safe to use under normal operating conditions—hence the name, Dielectric Withstanding Voltage test.
Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gas phase of water and is invisible. Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog. Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table, used during summer weather.
There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air. Relative humidity, expressed as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that temperature. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the total air content on a mass basis.
Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. In quantitative terms, it is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current in an alternating current (AC) circuit. Impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits, and possesses both magnitude and phase, unlike resistance, which has only magnitude. When a circuit is driven with direct current (DC), there is no distinction between impedance and resistance; the latter can be thought of as impedance with zero phase angle.
The lux (symbol: lx) is the SI unit of illuminance and luminous emittance, measuring luminous flux per unit area. It is equal to one lumen per square metre. In photometry, this is used as a measure of the intensity, as perceived by the human eye, of light that hits or passes through a surface. It is analogous to the radiometric unit watts per square metre, but with the power at each wavelength weighted according to the luminosity function, a standardized model of human visual brightness perception. In English, "lux" is used in both singular and plural.
- manometer could also refer to a pressure measuring instrument, usually limited to measuring pressures near to atmospheric. The term manometer is often used to refer specifically to liquid column hydrostatic instruments.
- vacuum gauge is used to measure the pressure in a vacuum—which is further divided into two subcategories, high and low vacuum (and sometimesultra-high vacuum). The applicable pressure range of many of the techniques used to measure vacuums have an overlap. Hence, by combining several different types of gauge, it is possible to measure system pressure continuously from 10 mbar down to 10−11 mbar.
The PDSurveyor™ family has been designed to carry out Partial Discharge detection by all operational staff entering the substation or facility. 'Look-see' PD tests can be made quickly and easily to scan large numbers of cables and plant items for PD activity as a prelude to using diagnostic PD test and/or monitoring technology.
With the recent addition of 3x new handheld PD screening units to our standard PDSurveyor™ offering, HVPD can offer solutions for testing all types of MV plant in the voltage range from 3.3 kV to 45 kV, as follows:
- physics, power is the rate at which energy is transferred, used, or transformed. The unit of power is the joule per second (J/s), known as thewatt (in honor of James Watt, the eighteenth-century developer of the steam engine). For example, the rate at which a light bulb transforms electrical energy into heat and light is measured in watts—the more wattage, the more power, or equivalently the more electrical energy is used per unit time.
Energy transfer can be used to do work, so power is also the rate at which this work is performed. The same amount of work is done when carrying a load up a flight of stairs whether the person carrying it walks or runs, but more power is expended during the running because the work is done in a shorter amount of time. The output power of an electric motor is the product of the torque the motor generates and the angular velocity of its output shaft. The power expended to move a vehicle is the product of the traction force of the wheels and the velocity of the vehicle.
A refractometer is a laboratory or field device for the measurement of an index of refraction (refractometry). The index of refraction is calculated from Snell's law and can be calculated from the composition of the material using the Gladstone–Dale relation
There are four main types of refractometers: traditional handheld refractometers, digital handheld refractometers, laboratory or Abbe refractometers, and inline process refractometers. There is also the Rayleigh Refractometer used (typically) for measuring the refractive indices of gases.
In drug diagnostics, a refractometer is used to measure the specific gravity in human urine.
In gemology, a refractometer is used to help identify gem materials by measuring their refractive index.Gemstones are transparent minerals and can therefore be examined using optical methods. As the refractive index is a material constant dependent on the chemical composition of a substance, it provides information on the type and quality of a gemstone. Classification with a special gemstone refractometer is an easy-to-use method with which the authenticity and quality of a stone can be evaluated. The gemstone refractometer is therefore a piece of basic equipment in a gemological laboratory. Due to the dependence of the refractive index (dispersion) on the wavelength of the light used, the measurement is normally taken at the wavelength of the sodium-D-line (NaD) of 589 nm.
Sound is a sequence of waves of pressure that propagates through compressible media such as air or water. (Sound can propagate through solids as well, but there are additional modes of propagation). Sound that is perceptible by humans has frequencies from about 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. In air at standard temperature and pressure, the corresponding wavelengths of sound waves range from 17 m to 17 mm. During propagation, waves can be reflected, refracted, or attenuated by the medium.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infraredimaging science. Thermographic cameras detectradiation in the infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum (roughly 9,000–14,000 nanometers or 9–14 µm) and produce images of that radiation, called thermograms. Since infrared radiation is emitted by all objects above absolute zero according to the black bodyradiation law, thermography makes it possible to see one's environment with or without visible illumination. The amount of radiation emitted by an object increases with temperature; therefore, thermography allows one to see variations in temperature. When viewed through a thermal imaging camera, warm objects stand out well against cooler backgrounds; humans and other warm-blooded animals become easily visible against the environment, day or night. As a result, thermography is particularly useful to military and other users of surveillance cameras.
Application: Accurately measuring remaining wall thickness of metal pipes, tanks, beams, ship hulls, and other structures through paint and similar coatings.
Background: In many industrial and petrochemical maintenance situations it is necessary to measure the remaining thickness of metal that is subject to corrosion through one or more coats of paint or similar non-metallic coatings. With conventional ultrasonic thickness gages, the presence of paint or similar coatings will cause measurement errors, typically increasing the apparent metal thickness by more than twice the thickness of the paint, due to the paint's much slower sound velocity. Two solutions to this problem are available: echo-to-echo measurement and Thru-Coat measurement.
Vibration is a mechanical phenomenon whereby oscillations occur about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.
Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or mobile phones or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices.
More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound – noise. For example, the vibrational motions of engines, electric motors, or any mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations.
The study of sound and vibration are closely related. Sound, or "pressure waves", are generated by vibrating structures (e.g. vocal cords); these pressure waves can also induce the vibration of structures (e.g. ear drum). Hence, when trying to reduce noise it is often a problem in trying to reduce vibration.
Water is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2O. A water molecule contains one oxygen and two hydrogen atoms connected by covalent bonds. Water is a liquid at standard ambient temperature and pressure, but it often co-exists on Earth with its solid state, ice, and gaseous state (water vapor or steam). Water also exists in a liquid crystal state near hydrophilic surfaces.
A multi-parameter ion meter used for measuring the ion concentration and pH value of liquids. The meter is equipped with a BNC connecter that can connects...
Fluoride Ion Selective Electrode (Made in US)
TP-10K Temperature Probe
Carrying Case and "AA" Batteries
High-performance water quality meter■ pH Range: -2.000~20.000pH (±0.002pH)■ mV Range: -1999.9~1999.9mV (±0.2mV)■ Ion Concentration Range: 0.01~19999ppm,...
This Window Tint Meter is a hand held device that measures the amount of light that passes through a window. It measures the total amount of Visual...
With its bright, very large, AMOLED display the Cygnus DIVE is simple to operate, providing accurate and reliable thickness measurements, underwater. Depth...
The Cygnus Underwater is the original diver held subsea multiple echo Ultrasonic Thickness Gauge. It was designed for use by divers undertaking subsea...
FEATURES ● Test Insulation Resistance up to 2 TΩ (2000GΩ).● Short-circuit current up to 5mA.● Microprocessor controlled.●...